Photo: World Meteorological Organization, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Assisting the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is one of ECMWF’s founding objectives and holds an important place in the Centre’s ten-year Strategy to 2030. The support to the WMO includes the provision of free datasets to WMO Members and discounted access to the full catalogue of data, support to fellowships and projects to improve severe weather forecasting in developing countries, training, and participation in expert teams on scientific, technical and policy matters.
ECMWF relies on the WMO for the global exchange of observations, as a prerequisite for all our NWP forecasting activities.
ECMWF has a formal co-operation agreement with the WMO, which has designated ECMWF as a:
- World Meteorological Centre (WMC)
- Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) for medium-range forecasts
- Global Producing Centre for Long-range Forecasts (GPC)
- Lead centre for deterministic NWP verification (LC-DNV)
- Lead centre for upper-air observation monitoring
- Lead centre for wave forecast verification
We contribute to the WMO Severe Weather Forecasting programme (SWFP) as a Global Centre. In this project we provide access to our global HRES and ENS products as part of the cascading forecast approach to support national meteorological services in developing and least-developed countries.
We also contribute to WMO committees, working groups and expert teams, especially on issues relating to the World Weather Watch. We support the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) and in particular we are active members of the DAOS, S2S, PPP and WGNE committees.
ECMWF provides the meteorological community with the ecCodes software in support of the WMO's standard data formats BUFR and GRIB, and it hosts a number of meteorological archives as part of WMO projects.
ECMWF as a World Meteorological Centre (WMC)
WMCs provide WMO Members with a range of forecast products based on their global models for both medium-range and seasonal ensemble forecasts. They also provide relevant documentation and verification to demonstrate the quality of their forecasts. This is to assist WMO Members in their official duties at national level.
WMO Members can access a subset of ECMWF products free of charge. These include deterministic and ensemble medium-range forecasts and ensemble seasonal forecasts.
A subset of products is available via the WMO information system (WIS). The main dissemination routes are the GTS (Global Telecommunication System) and EUMETSAT's EUMETCast service.
WMO Members can gain access to the entire catalogue of ECMWF forecast products with a non-commercial licence.
Lead centre for deterministic NWP verification
ECMWF has been the WMO lead centre for deterministic NWP verification for many years. The task of this lead centre is to collect, archive, and display upper-air verification scores from participating global NWP centres. Scores are computed by each centre following the guidelines in WMO Manual 485. Since April 2017, station-based surface scores are being exchanged as well (as described in the updated version of WMO Manual 485) but this has been adopted by few centres so far.
ECMWF is currently the lead centre for upper-air observation monitoring.
The WMO is developing a modernised system of the quality management of the surface-based components of the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS). The WIGOS Data Quality Monitoring System (WDQMS) web tool, developed jointly by WMO and ECMWF, became fully operational in March 2020.
The web tool monitors the performance of some of the WIGOS observing components, namely the Global Observing System (GOS) land-based surface and upper-air (radiosonde) stations and the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) surface and upper-air land stations.
The monitoring module of the GOS networks is based on near-real-time numerical weather prediction (NWP) monitoring information provided by the four participating global NWP centres: DWD, ECMWF, JMA and NCEP. The GCOS monitoring module is based on data collected from the GCOS monitoring centres and includes the monitoring of the GCOS Surface Network (GSN) and the GCOS Upper-Air Network (GUAN). The GCOS monitoring relies on monthly statistics provided by DWD.
The tool links the availability and quality of observational data from those WIGOS Monitoring Centres with the WIGOS metadata and user requirements from OSCAR, providing information on network/station issues to WMO Members and to Regional WIGOS Centres (RWCs) for follow up. The open access to the WDQMS web tool allows all national meteorological services to get feedback in near real time on the usage and quality of their observations and gives global NWP centres the opportunity to improve their monitoring capabilities by comparing the data coverage and data quality with other NWP centres.
For more details about ECMWF's work on observation monitoring, see Monitoring of the observing system.
Lead centre for wave forecast verification
ECMWF became the WMO lead centre for wave forecast verification in June 2018 with formal approval at WMO Executive Council EC-70, following recommendations at CBS-16 in November 2016 and at JCOMM-5 in October 2017. Participating centres provide forecasts of wave parameters and 10 m wind speed, and the lead centre computes and publishes scores for these forecasts. The project has reached full operational status with a monthly data update and a three-monthly update of scores. More details are available on the Lead Centre for Wave Forecast Verification web page.
Archives to support WMO projects
We host an archive of ensemble forecasts from 13 global centres to support the WMO TIGGE project. This project seeks to improve high-impact weather forecasts by strengthening international collaboration between operational centres and academia. The forecast data is freely available to all users for research purposes.
We also develop and maintain an archive for extended-range (subseasonal) forecasts to support the WMO Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction Project (S2S).
ECMWF is contributing to the Year Of Polar Prediction (YOPP), which is part of the WMO Polar Prediction Project (PPP), by creating and hosting a data archive of selected meteorological fields from ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System.
Severe Weather Forecasting Project (SWFP)
ECMWF supports the WMO’s Severe Weather Forecasting programme (SWFP) with state-of-the-art weather forecasts. The SWFP strengthens the capacity of NMHSs in developing and least developed countries to deliver improved forecasts and warnings of severe weather to save lives, livelihoods and property.
The SWFP uses the cascading forecasting process, moving high-value information from global prediction centres to regional hubs, and then down to national meteorological centres.
This enables the production of more accurate and timely forecasts and warnings of hydrometeorological hazards. It helps build capacity and expertise in developing countries.
The SWFP involves and benefits over 75 developing countries, least developed countries (LDCs) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in eight sub-regions, including Southern Africa, South Pacific, Eastern Africa, South-East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, West Africa and Eastern Caribbean.
ECMWF contributes to all the SWFP regional subprojects with dedicated areas on the website which offer easy access to forecast products using the ecCharts framework:
ECMWF has also supported the SWFP by participating in training activities with lectures, practical activities and eLearning training resources.