Andy Brown

Director of Research
Research Department

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Profile
Summary: 

Andy is Director of Research at ECMWF. He has over 25 years experience of performing and leading research, and of translating research outputs into operational model improvements. In so doing he has championed a seamless approach to science and modelling, enabling lessons learned or developments to systems from one timescale to be most effectively applied to others.

Andy is author of over 60 peer-reviewed papers on a variety of topics relating to atmospheric physical processes, parametrization and weather and climate modelling. He has also engaged widely internationally (e.g. through WMO) and been involved in the development of science partnerships to better link the work of operational centres with partner organizations and academia.

Professional interests: 
  • Development of improvements to operational NWP systems

  • Seamless modelling across time and space scales

  • Representation of physical processes, including boundary layer and orographic drag

  • Model efficiency and scalability

Career background: 

Education

  • PhD, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Surrey, 1995.
  • BA(Hons), Physics, 1st Class, University of Oxford, 1990.

Job History

  • Since 07/2017: Director of Research, ECMWF
  • 2012-2017: Director of Science, Met Office
  • 2010-2012: Deputy Director, Met Office
  • 2007-2010: Head of Atmospheric Processes and Parametrizations, Met Office
  • 2004-2007: Research Fellow (Boundary layer and orography), Met Office
  • 2003-2004: Consultant (Orographic processes), ECMWF
External recognitions: 
  • Member of Modelling Advisory Committee for NCEP (UMAC) and of the parent UCAR Advisory Committee for NCEP (UCACN).
  • Co-chair (2016-2017) of the Strategic Programme Board of the NERC (Natural Environment Research Council) / Met Office Joint Weather and Climate Research Programme.
  • Member (2011-2015) of Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Science and Innovation Strategy Board (SISB).
  • Member (2008-2009) and co-chair (2009-2014) of WMO CAS/WCRP Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE).
  • Member of WMO Commission for Atmospheric Sciences Management Group (2010-2014).
  • Awarded the Buchan prize of the Royal Meteorological Society in 2008. The Buchan Prize is awarded annually for a papers or papers published in Royal Meteorological Society journals in the previous five years, and judged to contain the most important original contribution or contributions to meteorology.
  • Awarded the L.F. Richardson Prize of the Royal Meteorological Society in 1999. The L.F. Richardson prize is awarded annually for an outstanding paper published in the Royal Meteorological Society journals by an author under the age of 35.
Publications

Peer-reviewed publications

  1. Mason, P.J. and Brown, A.R. (1994): The sensitivity of large-eddy simulations of turbulent shear flow to subgrid models. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 70, 133-150.
  2. Andren, A., Brown, A.R., Graf, J., Mason, P.J., Moeng, C.-H., Nieuwstadt, F.T.M., and Schumann, U. (1994): Large-eddy simulation of a neutrally stratified boundary layer: a comparison of four computer codes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1457-1484.
  3. Brown, A.R., Derbyshire, S.H. and Mason, P.J. (1994): Large-eddy simulation of stable atmospheric boundary layers with a revised stochastic subgrid model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1485-1512.
  4. Brown, A.R. (1996): Large-eddy simulation and parametrization of the baroclinic atmospheric boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 122, 1779-1798.
  5. Brown, A.R. (1996): Evaluation of parametrization schemes for the convective boundary layer using large-eddy simulation results. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 81, 167-200.
  6. Brown, A.R. and Grant, A.L.M. (1997): Non-local mixing of momentum in the convective boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 84, 1-22.
  7. Brown, A.R. (1999): The sensitivity of large-eddy simulations of shallow cumulus convection to resolution and subgrid model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 469-482.
  8. Mason, P.J. and Brown, A.R. (1999): On subgrid models and filter operations in large-eddy simulations J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 2101-2114.
  9. Brown, A.R. (1999): Large-eddy simulation and parametrization of the effects of shear on shallow cumulus convection. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 91, 65-80.
  10. Grant, A.L.M. and Brown, A.R. (1999): A similarity hypothesis for shallow cumulus transports. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 1913-1936.
  11. Hobson, J.M., Wood, N. and Brown, A.R. (1999): Large-eddy simulations of neutrally-stratified flow over surfaces with spatially varying roughness length. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 1937-1958.
  12. Brown, A.R., MacVean, M.K. and Mason, P.J. (2000): The effects of numerical dissipation in large-eddy simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 57,  3337-3348.
  13. Lock, A.P., Brown, A.R., Bush, M.R., Martin, G.M. and Smith, R.N.B. (2000): A new boundary layer scheme for the Unified Model. Part I: Scheme description and single-column model tests. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3187-3199.
  14. Martin, G.M., Bush, M.R., Brown, A.R., Lock, A.P. and Smith, R.N.B. (2000): A new boundary layer scheme for the Unified Model. Part II: Tests in climate and mesoscale models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3200-3217.
  15. Brown, A.R. and Grant, A.L.M. (2000): Extensions to a similarity hypothesis for shallow cumulus transports. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 97, 173-190.
  16. Brown, A.R., Hobson, J.M. and Wood N. (2001): Large-eddy simulation of neutral turbulent flow over rough sinusoidal ridges. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 98, 411-441.
  17. Wood, N., Brown, A.R. and Hewer, F.E. (2001): Parametrizing the effects of orography on the boundary layer: an alternative to effective roughness lengths. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 759-777.
  18. Davies, L.A. and Brown, A.R. (2001): Assessment of which scales of orography can be credibly resolved in a numerical model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 1225-1237.
  19. Stevens, B., Ackerman, A.S., Albrecht, B.C., Brown, A.R., Chlond, A., Cuxart, J.,Duynkerke, P.G., Lewellen, D.C., MacVean, M.K., Sanchez, E.,Siebesma, A.P. and Stevens, D.E. (2001): Simulations of trade-wind cumuli under a strong inversion. J.Atmos.Sci., 58, 1870-1891.
  20. Brown, A.R. and Wood, N. (2001): Turbulent form drag on anisotropic three-dimensional orography. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 101, 229-241.
  21. Allen, T. and Brown, A.R. (2002): Large-eddy simulation of turbulent separated flow over rough hills. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 102, 177-198.
  22. Brown, A.R., Cederwall, R.T., Chlond, A., Duynkerke, P.G., Golaz, J.-C.,  Khairoutdinov, M.,  Lewellen, D.C., Lock, A.P., MacVean, M.K., Moeng, C.-H., Neggers, R.A.J., Siebesma, A.P. and Stevens, B. (2002): Large-eddy simulation of the diurnal cycle of shallow cumulus convection over land. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 1075-1093.
  23. Petch, J.C., Brown, A.R. and Gray, M.E.B. (2002): The impact of horizontal resolution on the simulations of convective development over land. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 2031-2044.
  24. Siebesma, A.P., Bretherton, C.S., Brown, A.R., Chlond, A., Cuxart, J., Duynkerke, P.G., Jiang, H., Khairoutdinov, M., Lewellen, D., Moeng, C.-H., Sanchez, E., Stevens, B., Stevens, D.E. (2003): A large-eddy simulation intercomparison study of shallow cumulus convection. J.Atmos.Sci., 60, 1201-1219.
  25. Webster, S., Brown, A.R., Cameron, D.R. and Jones, C.P. (2003): Improvements to the representation of orography in the Met Office Unified Model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 129, 1989-2010.
  26. Brown, A.R., Athanassiadou, M. and Wood, N. (2003): Topographically induced waves within the stable boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 129, 3357-3370.
  27. Brown, A.R. and Wood, N. (2003): Properties and parametrization of the stable boundary layer over moderate topography. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 2797-2808.
  28. Gloster, J., Champion, H.J., Ryall, D.B. and Brown, A.R. (2004): The 2001 UK epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease - a meteorological review: Part 1. Weather, 59, 8-11.
  29. Gloster, J., Champion, H.J., Ryall, D.B. and Brown, A.R. (2004): The 2001 UK epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease - a meteorological review: Part 2. Weather, 59, 43-45.
  30. Beljaars, A.C.M., Brown, A.R. and Wood, N. (2004): A new parametrization of turbulent orographic form drag. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 1327-1347.
  31. Brown, A.R. (2004): Pressure forces on small-scale three-dimensional hills in stable conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 114, 233-239.
  32. Brown, A.R. and Webster, S. (2004): Orographic flow blocking scheme characteristics. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 3015-3028.
  33. Brown, A.R. (2004): Resolution dependence of orographic torques. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 3029-3046.
  34. Brown, A.R., Beljaars, A.C.M., Hersbach, H., Hollingsworth, A., Miller, M. and Vasiljevic, D. (2005): Wind turning across the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 1233-1250.
  35. Wells, H. E., Webster, S. and Brown, A.R. (2005): The effect of rotation on the pressure drag force produced by flow around long mountain ridges. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 1321-1338.
  36. Allen, T. and Brown, A.R. (2006): Modelling of turbulent from drag in convective conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 118, 421-429.
  37. Smith, S. A., Doyle, J. D., Brown, A., and Webster, S. (2006): Sensitivity of resolved mountain drag to model resolution for MAP case studies. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 132, 1467-1487
  38. Brown, A.R., Beljaars, A.C.M and Hersbach, H.  (2006): Errors in parametrizations of convective boundary layer turbulent momentum mixing. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 132, 1859-1876.
  39. Vosper, S.V., Sheridan, P.F. and Brown, A.R. (2006): Rotor formation by two-dimensional trapped lee waves. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 132, 2415-2438.
  40. McCabe, A. and Brown, A.R. (2007): The role of surface heterogeneity in modelling the stable boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 122, 517-534.
  41. Vosper, S.B. and Brown, A.R. (2007): The effect of small-scale hills on orographic drag. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 133, 1345-1352.
  42. Vosper, S.B. and Brown, A.R. (2008): Numerical simulations of sheltering in valleys: the formation of night-time cold-air pools. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 127, 429-448.
  43. Wells, H., Vosper, S.B., Webster, S., Ross, A.N. and Brown, A.R. (2008): The impact of mountain wakes on the drag exerted on downstream mountains. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 134, 679--689
  44. Wells, H., Vosper, S.B., Webster, S., Ross, A.N. and Brown, A.R. (2008): Wind direction effects on orographic drag. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 134, 691--703
  45. Brown, A.R., Beare, R.J., Edwards, J.M., Lock, A.P., Keogh, S.J., Milton, S.F., and Walters, D.N. (2008): Upgrades to the boundary layer scheme in the Met Office NWP model. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 128, 117-132.
  46. Lewis, H.W., Mobbs, S.D., Vosper, S.B. and Brown, A.R. (2008): The effect of surface heating on hill-induced flow separation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 129, 269-287.
  47. Cullen, MJ.P. and Brown, A.R. (2009): Large-eddy simulation of the atmosphere on various scales. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A., 367, 2947-2956.
  48. Vosper, S.B., Wells, H. and Brown, A.R. (2009): Accounting for non-uniform static stability in orographic drag parametrization. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 135, 815-822.
  49. Smith, S.A., Brown, A.R., Vosper, S.B., Murkin, P.A. and Veal, A.T. (2010): Observations and simulations of cold air pooling in valleys. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 134, 85-108.
  50. Boutle, I.A., Beare, R.J., Belcher, S.E., Brown, A.R. and Plant, R.S. (2010): Moist boundary layers under mid-latitude weather systems. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 134, 367-386.
  51. Sheridan, P.F., Smith, S.A., Brown, A.R. and Vosper, S.B. (2010): A simple height-based correction for temperature downscaling in complex terrain. Meteorol. Appl., 17, 329-339.
  52. Senior, C.A., Arribas,A., Brown, A.R., Cullen, M.J.P., Johns, T.C., Martin, G.M., Milton, S.F., Webster, S. and Williams, K.D. (2010): Synergies between Numerical Weather Prediction and Gneral Circulation Climate Models. In ‘Complexity, Synthesis, and Computation: The Development of Atmospheric General Circulation Models’, edited by L. Donner. Cambridge University Press.
  53. The HadGEM2 Development Team: Martin, G.M., Bellouin, N., Collins, W.J., Culverwell, I.D., Halloran, P.R., Hardiman, S.C., Hinton, T.J., Jones, C.D., McDonald, R.E., McLaren, A.J., O'Connor, F.M., Roberts, M.J., Rodriguez, J.M., Woodward, S., Best, M.J., Brooks, M.E., Brown, A.R., Butchart, N., Dearden, C., Derbyshire, S.H., Dharssi, I., Doutriaux-Boucher, M., Edwards, J.M., Falloon, P.D., Gedney, N., Gray, L.J., Hewitt, H.T., Hobson, M., Huddleston, M.R., Hughes, J., Ineson, S., Ingram, W.J., James, P.M., Johns, T.C., Johnson, C.E., Jones, A., Jones, C.P., Joshi, M.M., Keen, A.B., Liddicoat, S., Lock, A.P., Maidens, A.V., Manners, J.C., Milton, S.F., Rae, J.G.L., Ridley, J.K., Sellar, A., Senior, C.A., Totterdell, I.J., Verhoef, A., Vidale, P.L. and Wiltshire, A. (2011): The HadGEM2 family of Met Office Unified Model climate configurations. Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 723-757, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-723-2011, 2011.
  54. Price, J.D., Vosper, S., Brown, A., Ross, A, Clark, P., Davies, F., Horlacher, V.,  Claxton, B., McGregor, J., Hoare, J., Jemmett-Smith, B. and Sheridan, P. (2011)
    COLPEX: Field and Numerical Studies Over a Region of Small Hills. COLPEX: Field and Numerical Studies over a region of small hills. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 1636-1650.
  55. Belcher, S.E., Grant, A.L.M., Hanley, K.E., Fox-Kemper, B., Van Roekel, L., Sullivan, P.P., Large, W.G., Brown, A.R., Hines, A., Calvert, D., Rutgersson, A., Pettersson, H., Bidlot, J.-R., Janssen, P.A.E. and Polton, J.A. (2012):  A global perspective on Langmuir turbulence in the ocean surface boundary layer. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18605, doi:10.1029/2012GL052932.
  56. Brown, A., Milton, S., Cullen, M., Golding, B., Mitchell, J. and Shelly, A. (2012): Unified Modeling and Prediction of Weather and Climate: A 25-Year Journey. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 1865–1877.
  57. Sherwood, S. C., et al. (2013): Climate Processes: Clouds, Aerosols and Dynamics, in Climate Science for Serving Society: Research, Modelling and Prediction Priorities, 73-103.
  58. Vosper, S.B., Hughes, J.K., Lock, A.P., Sheridan, P.F., Ross, A.N., Jemmett-Smith, B. and Brown, A.R. (2014): Cold pool formation in a narrow valley. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 140, 699-714. DOI: 10.1002/qj.2160
  59. Sheridan, P.F., Vosper, S.B. and Brown, A.R. (2014): Characteristics of cold pools observed in narrow valleys and dependence on external conditions. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 140, 715-728. DOI: 10.1002/qj.2159
  60. Brown, A., Miller, M., Beljaars, A., Bouyssel, F., Holloway C. and Petch J. (2015): Challenges for sub-gridscale parametrizations in atmospheric models. In World Meteorological Organization, 2015: Seamless Prediction of the Earth System: from Minutes to Months, (G Brunet, S Jones, PM Ruti Eds.), (WMO-No. 1156), (ISBN 978-92-63-11156-2), Geneva.
  61. Rabier, F., Thorpe, A.J., Brown, A.R., Charron, M., Doyle, J.D., Hamill, T.M., Ishida, J., Lapenta, W., Reynolds, C.A. and Satoh, M. (2015): Global environmental prediction. In World Meteorological Organization, 2015: Seamless Prediction of the Earth System: from Minutes to Months, (G Brunet, S Jones, PM Ruti Eds.), (WMO-No. 1156), (ISBN 978-92-63-11156-2), Geneva.
  62. Ban R. et al., including Brown, A.R. (2016): Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2016. doi:10.17226/21873.
  63. Vosper, S.B., Brown, A.R. and Webster, S. (2017): Orographic drag on islands in the NWP mountain grey zone. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., in press.
  64. Song, Q., Chelton, D.B., Esbensen, S.K. and Brown, A.R. (2017): An investigation of the stability dependence of the SST-induced vertical mixing over the ocean in the operational Met Office model. J. Clim., in press.

thumbnail photo of Andy Brown
Contact Details:
andy . brownecmwf . int