Beena Balan Sarojini

Research Department, Earth System Predictability Section, Extended Range

page tabs


Beena is interested in ocean and sea ice initialisation, coupled forecasting on sub-seasonal to seasonal time scales, assessing ocean observational impact on numerical weather prediction,  and in Earth System variability and change.

Professional interests: 
  • Arctic Sea Ice Forecasting
  • Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Predictability
  • Forecast Initialisation
  • Earth System Variability
  • Changes in the water cycle
Career background: 


Ph.D., Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany (2002-2006). Thesis titled "Effect of daily surface flux anomalies on the time-mean oceanic circulation". PhD Advisor: J.-S von Storch

M.Sc. in Physical Oceanography, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala, India (1995-1998). Dissertation titled "Sea surface temperature characteristics over North Indian Ocean".

Professional Experience

  • 04/2017 - present: Scientist, Earth System Predictability Section, ECWMF, Reading, U.K.
  • 03/2008 - 04/2017: Post doc, National Centre for Atmospheric Science - Climate / Univ. of Reading, Reading, UK.
  • 07/2007 - 07/2007: Visiting Scientist, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany.
  • 08/2002 - 08/2002: Visiting Researcher, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
  • 06/2001 - 12/2006: Researcher, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology / Meteorological Institute, Univ. of Hamburg, Germany.
  • 11/1999 - 03/2001: Research Assistant, Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
  • 04/1998 - 11/1999: Research Trainee, Division of Physical Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India.
External recognitions: 

Contributing Author, Chapter 10 on Detection and Attribution of Climate Change, Physical Science Basis, Working Group 1, United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC - AR5), 2013.


Akhila, R. S., J. Kuttippurath, B. Balan Sarojini, A. Chakraborty & R. Rahul (2022): Observed tropical cyclone-driven cold wakes in the context of rapid warming of the Arabian Sea, Journal of Operational Oceanography, DOI: 10.1080/1755876X.2022.2068260

J. Kuttipurath, Akhila R. S., Martin, M. V, Girish Kumar M. S., M. Mohapatra, B. Balan Sarojini, K. Mogensen, N. Sunanda and A. Chakraborty (2022) : Tropical cyclone-induced cold water wakes in the northeast Indian Ocean Environmental Science: Atmospheres, doi: 10.1039/D1EA00066G.

Andersson, T.R., Hosking, J.S., Pérez-Ortiz, M. Paige, B., Elliott, A., Russell, C., Law, S., Jones, C.D., Wilkinson, J., Phillips, T., Byrne, J., Tietsche, S., B. Balan Sarojini, Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Aksenov, Y., Downie, R., and Shuckburgh, E., (2021): Seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasting with probabilistic deep learning. Nat Commun 12, 5124,

B. Balan-Sarojini, S. Tietsche, M. Mayer, M. Balmaseda, H. Zuo, P. de Rosnay, T. Stockdale, and F. Vitart (2021): Year-round impact of winter sea ice thickness observations on seasonal forecasts, The Cryosphere,​.

​J.Kuttippurath,  , and  (2021): Observed rainfall changes in the past century (1901-2019) over the wettest place on Earth. Environ. Res. Lett., 16, 024018,

P.L. Vidale, G. Egea, P.C. McGuire, M. Todt, W. Peters, O. Müller, B. Balan-Sarojini, and A. Verhoef (2021): On the Treatment of Soil Water Stress in GCM Simulations of Vegetation Physiology. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 9, 326,

S. Garrigues, A. Verhoef, E. Blyth, A. Wright, B. Balan-Sarojini, E.L. Robinson, S. Dadson, A. Boone, S. Boussetta, and G. Balsamo (2021): Capability of the variogram to quantify the spatial patterns of surface fluxes and soil moisture simulated by land surface models. Progress in Physical Geography, https://doi: 10.1177/0309133320986147.

M. Mäkynen, J. Haapala, G. Aulicino, B. Balan-Sarojini, M. Balmaseda, A. Gegiuc, F. Girard-Ardhuin, S. Hendricks, G. Heygster, L. Istomina, L. Kaleschke, J. Karvonen, T. Krumpen, M. Lensu, M. Mayer, F. Parmiggiani, R. Ricker, E. Rinne, A. Schmitt, M. Similä,  S. Tietsche, R. Tonboe, P. Wadhams, M. Winstrup, and H. Zuo (2020):  Satellite observations for detecting and forecasting sea-ice conditions: A summary of advances made in the SPICES project by the EU’s Horizon 2020 programme, Remote Sensing., doi: 10.3390/rs12071214.

F. Vitart, M. Balmaseda, L. Ferranti, A. Benedetti, B. Balan Sarojini, S. Tietsche, J. Yao, M. Janousek, G. Balsamo, M. Leutbecher, P. Bechtold, I. Polichtchouk, D. Richardson, T. Stockdale, and C.D. Roberts (2019): Extended-range prediction. Technical Memorandum, ECMWF, 854, 10.21957/pdivp3t9m.

B. Balan Sarojini, S. Tietsche, M. Mayer, M. Balmaseda, and H. Zuo (2019): Towards improved sea ice initialisation and forecasting with the IFS. Technical Memorandum, ECMWF, 844, 10.21957/mt6m6rpwt.

B. Balan Sarojini, P.A. Stott and E. Black (2016): Detection and Attribution of human
influence on regional precipitation.
Nature Clim. Change, doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2976.

G. Hegerl, E. Black, R.P. Allan, W.J. Ingram, D. Polson, K.E. Trenberth, R.S. Chadwick, P.A. Arkin, B. Balan Sarojini, A. Becker, A. Dai, P. J. Durack, D. Easterling, H.J. Fowler, E.J. Kendon, G.J. Huffman, C. Liu, R. Marsh, M. New, T. J. Osborn, N. Skliris, P. A. Stott, P.L. Vidale, S.E. Wijffels, L. J. Wilcox, K.M. Willett and X. Zhang: (2015): Challenges in quantifying changes in the global water cycle. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00212.1.

B. Balan Sarojini (2013): Impacts of changes in the hydrological cycle. Weather, 68:292, DOI: 10.1002/wea.2172.

D. Polson, G. C. Hegerl, R. P. Allan and B. Balan Sarojini (2013): Have greenhouse gases intensified the contrast between wet and dry regions? Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 4783-4787.

B. Balan Sarojini, P.A. Stott, E. Black and D. Polson (2012): Fingerprints of changes in annual and seasonal precipitation from CMIP5 models over land and ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L21706.

B. Balan Sarojini, J.M. Gregory, R. Tailleux, G. Bigg, A. Blaker, D.R. Cameron, N.Edwards, A. Megann, L. Shaffrey, B. Sinha (2011): High frequency variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Ocean Science, Vol. 7, 471-486.

B.S. Beena and J.S. von Storch (2009): Effect of daily surface flux anomalies on the time-mean oceanic circulation. Climate Dynamics, Vol. 33, No.1, 1-18.

B.S. Beena (2006): Effect of Daily Surface Flux Anomalies on the Time-Mean Oceanic Circulation. Reports on Earth System Science, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany Vol. 31 (Ph.D. thesis).

J.S. von Storch, J.P. Montavez and B.S. Beena (2005): EMAD: An Empirical Model of Air-Sea Fluxes. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 14, No.6, 755-762.




thumbnail photo of Beena Balan Sarojini
Science Blog: 
Contact Details:
beena . sarojiniecmwf . int