Forward operator for polarimetric radio occultation measurements

Forward operator for polarimetric radio occultation measurements
Technical memorandum
Date Published
Secondary Title
ECMWF Technical Memoranda

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Polarimetric Radio-Occultation (PRO) observations sense the presence of hydrometeor particles along the ray path by measuring the difference of excess phases in horizontally and vertically polarised carrier waves. As a first step towards using these observations in data assimilation and model diagnostics, a forward operator for GNSS-PRO observable ΦDP (polarimetric differential phase shift) has been implemented by extending the existing two-dimensional forward operator for radio-occultation bending angle observations. Evaluation on heavy precipitation cases showed that the implemented forward operator can simulate very accurately the observed ΦDP in synoptic-scale atmospheric river (AR) cases. For tropical cyclone cases it is more challenging to produce reasonable ΦDP simulations, due to the highly sensitive of ΦDP with respect to displacement of the position of the tropical cyclones. It was also found that snow is the dominant contributor to the simulated ΦDP, and that the ability to compute the ray paths in two dimensions is essential to accurately simulate ΦDP.