|Title||Representing the Earth surfaces in the Integrated Forecasting System: Recent advances and future challenges|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Balsamo, G, Agusti-Panareda, A, Albergel, C, Beljaars, ACM, Boussetta, S, Dutra, E, Komori, T, Lang, STK, Munoz-Sabater, J, Pappenberger, F, De Rosnay, P, Sandu, I, Wedi, NP, Weisheimer, A, Wetterhall, F, Zsoter, E|
|Secondary Title||Technical Memorandum|
An improved description of the Earth surfaces, with particular focus on soil, vegetation, snow and inland water-bodies, has been driving recent research efforts within the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). These developments are considered together with their associated data assimilation components and the representation of inherent uncertainties. The surface fluxes and reservoirs related to energy, water, and carbon cycles predicted by the IFS are applied in an increasing number of environmental applications. This paper presents the current status and future challenges when moving towards a more complete monitoring and modelling of the Earth system, with particular focus on the surface component.