PDF iconChaos and weather prediction

by Roberto Buizza

  1. Introduction
  2. The Lorenz system
  3. Numerical weather prediction
  4. Sources of forecast error
  5. The ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System
  6. Targeted observations
  7. Summary and future developments
  8. Conclusion
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. References



PDF iconAtmospheric waves

by Martin Miller

  1. Introduction
  2. Basic equations
  3. Exact solutions of the linearized equations
  4. Simplified solutions to the linearized equations - filtering approximations
  5. Surface gravity waves
  6. Equatorial waves
  7. Summary diagram and modelling implications
  8. References



PDF iconProperties of the equations in motion

by Mike Cullen

  1. Introduction
  2. Observed behaviour
  3. Toy problems
  4. Shallow water equations
  5. Three dimensional equations
  6. Averaged equations
  7. Summary
  8. References



PDF iconData assimilation concepts and methods

by F Bouttier and P Courtier

  1. Basic concepts of data assimilation
  2. The state vector, control space and observations
  3. The modelling of errors
  4. Statistical interpolation with least-squares estimation
  5. A simple scalar illustration of least-squares estimation
  6. Models of error covariances
  7. Optimal interpolation (OI) analysis
  8. Three-dimensional variational analysis (3D-Var)
  9. 1D-Var and other variational analysis systems
  10. Four-dimensional variational assimilation (4D-Var)
  11. Estimating the quality of the analyses Implementation techniques
  12. Dual formulation of 3D/4D-Var (PSAS)
  13. The extended Kalman filter (EKF)
  14. Conclusion
  15. Appendix A. A primer on linear algebra
  16. Appendix B. Practical adjoint coding
  17. Appendix C. Exercises
  18. Appendix D. Main symbols
  19. References



PDF iconThe general problem of parametrization

by M Tiedtke

  1. Introduction
  2. The spectrum of atmospheric motions
  3. The non-parametrized equations
  4. Principles of parametrization
  5. References